Machine Learning, often abbreviated to ML, is a form of learning in which systems use complex computer algorithms to acquire knowledge or skill automatically without being programmed directly.
It is considered as a type of AI (Artificial Intelligence) since machines are built with the idea to learn and make decisions from the available data and even improve themselves from experience without requiring human involvement. The following will also help understand Machine Learning algorithms more clearly:
- ML aims to increase and improve accuracy without caring much about how successful of the systems.
- The concept is very simple — it takes the available data from the system and learns from that data. This is mainly used to maximize the machine’s performance.
- Unlike Al that involves decision making, ML allows machines to learn new things from time to time and improve from experience.
- The concept leads to knowledge in contrary to Al that leads to wisdom and more intelligent systems.
- It leads to creating of algorithms that learn by themselves without requiring assistance from humans.
The idea behind ML is based on mathematics, computer science, and statistics. Additionally, great scientists such as Andrey Markov, Thomas Bayes, and Carl Friedrich Gauss have contributed in the invention of statistical models like Markov Chains, Bayes Theorem, and the method of Least-Square respectively which are used a great deal in the Machine Learning algorithms.
ML comes in three types, Supervised, Reinforcement, and Unsupervised Learning. Each type is involved in a different concept of machine learning.
Evolution of Machine Learning
It began about 176 years ago during the Second World War when the world’s first electronic computer system was invented. The computer was known to be general-purpose and programmable and was created with one aim in mind — to compute the artillery range table values for the research laboratory of the U.S. Army. The first program that they created was used to study the practicability of their nuclear weapons. Although the Electronic-Numerical-Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) were known as a numerical computation device, the main idea was to create a system that will imitate human learning as well as thinking.
As time passed, different computer systems and games were invented to help humans become smarter in their activities. For instance, the first computer video game that was created in about a decade after the ENIAC computer was used by checkers players a great deal to better their skills. The game was even believed to beat the checker’s world champion. Nearly the same time, a very powerful algorithm known as the Perceptron came to live. It was built by Frank Rosenblatt, an Al expert who lived between 1928 and 1971. The program was created as a simple classifier. However, when combined with many numbers, it became very huge in terms of size. This program is used widely as a binary linear-classifier in supervised learning and it’s considered as the simplest form of artificial neural network.
Time passed and in the early 1990s, machine learning became very popular due to a wide knowledge in statistics and computer science. Since then, scientists began creating systems that analyzed data and used such data to learn with freedom without any interaction from humans. Today, machine-learning is everywhere and is used in a wide variety of applications such as robot locomotion, detection of internet fraud and network intruders, email spam filtering, online customer support, product recommendations, etc.
Machine Learning Education
Due to a great many applications of machine learning, it became noteworthy to develop various courses to study ML as a course. The following are one of the best programs to study master’s degrees for those interested in developing machine learning applications at a postgraduate level.
An MS In Computer Science (online) is one of the best online programs that train individuals about the fundamentals of computer systems along with various courses in computer programming, data structures, and artificial intelligence. The program is for those who have a bachelor’s degree in a related field such as Computer Science, Mathematics, Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and etcetera. It takes a minimum of 2 years with a specialization of any of the following courses:
- Artificial Intelligence
- Architecture, Compilers and Parallel Computing
- Machine Learning
- Graphics and Human-Computer Interaction
- Systems and Networking
- Formal Methods, Programming Languages, and Software Engineering
- Scientific Computing
Some of the most affordable and best schools to study this course online include Illinois Institute of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Dakota State University, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, and The University of West Florida.
There are various M Tech degrees that can lead to a wide knowledge in computers, robotics, computer systems, and Al. To study an M Tech degree via distance learning, one must have at least a technology degree in fields such as Computer Engineering, Electronics and Telecommunications, and Mechanical and Civil Engineering. Some of the courses offered in one of the top colleges and universities in a distance M Tech course include the following:
- Alternative Technology
- Computer Engineering
- Cryptographic Engineering
- Software Engineering
- Systems Engineering
- Web Engineering
- Communications Systems Engineering
Like most other postgraduate degrees, this course takes a minimum of two years. India is known to provide the best distance M Tech education and can be found in one of the best colleges/universities Annamalai University, Indira Gandhi Open University, Thapar Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Illinois Tech (India), and Amity University.
India provides one of the best online technology courses. The country offers high-quality distance masters education programs that you cannot find in some other countries. Courses are taught in English and are less expensive. Distance courses can be accessed through video conferencing, e-mails, instant messaging, chat rooms, etc. The following are the most notable and affordable online master’s programs in the country.
- Engineering Management
- Forensic Science
- Information Technology
- Computer Science
- Systems Engineering
- Software Engineering
- Computer Engineering
- Business Administration
- Forensic Psychology
Each course has a minimum of two years and leads to specialization in the only field of study. Other online courses include those that relate to design, multimedia, and office automation.
The Future of Machine Learning: Why it’s The End of Human Era
It’s no doubt that Al and its applications have contributed to about 75% of all the threats and opportunities that we face in this world like nanotechnology, climate change, biotechnology, and nuclear weapons. Experts have argued about this account and many of them have tried to warm strongly about the effects of AI and employment of robotics in applications that humans can do in their able hands.
Al is developing like a lightning bolt, and each day, a new technique or product that uses its knowledge is being invented. Although the main purpose of AI is to preserve human values and humanity, to save lives, and not to be hostile towards people, the super-intelligent machines are considered to pose a great danger to the human race in the future. This is best illustrated by the president of Machine-Learning Research Institute, Michael Vassar, that Artificial-General Intelligence (AGI) is very dangerous since it involves self-awareness algorithms, is self-improving and has the same level of intelligence as humans. He also says that the problem, as dangerous as it is, is not a big deal to understand, and that one does not need to be super smart to understand this problem. This problem is what actually will destroy us.
We, humans, are intelligent, and this characteristic might be the reason why we are set apart from other living organisms. Our smart minds and able hands have made us stand out as one of the best species on earth. The author of the book, Our Final Intelligence, James, argues that the inventions of machine learning and Al applications pose many risks including those that include the complete and of the human race. This is due to the realization that robots have taken jobs that were meant for actual people. He continues to emphasize that it could become very difficult to predict the next move of these machines or even control them in the future since they have a super brain compared us, humans. Barrat warns strongly against the use of AI. This and among other reasons are considered to exterminate the human race in the future.
About the Author
Siva Kumar has served the armed forces for 15 years. Post-retirement, he has been serving as a director of operations at Illinois Institute of Technology India Pvt Ltd this is a wholly owned subsidiary of Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. His aim is to provide a full-time study programme to learn at your place through the distance learning and online master programs.